Haemophilus Influenzae Infection - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment
What is Haemophilus Influenzae Infection?
A small, gram-negative, pleomorphic aerobic bacillus, Haemophilus influenzae causes diseases in many organ systems but most frequently attacks the respiratory system. In exudates, this organism predominantly resembles a coccobacillus.
H. influenzae is a common cause of epiglottitis, laryngotracheobronchitis, pneumonia, bronchiolitis, otitis media, and meningitis. Less often, it causes bacterial endocarditis, conjunctivitis, facial cellulitis, septic arthritis, and osteomyelitis.
H. influenzae pneumonia is an increasingly common nosocomial infection. It infects about one-half of all children before age 1 and virtually all children by age 3, although a new vaccine given at ages 2, 4, and 6 months has reduced this number.
What are the Signs and Symptoms of Haemophilus Influenzae Infection?
H. influenzae provokes a characteristic tissue response - acute supportive inflammation. When H. influenzae infects the larynx, trachea, and bronchial tree, it leads 10 mucosal edema and thick exudate; when it invades the lungs, it leads to bronchopneumonia. In the pharynx, H. influenzae usually produces no remarkable changes, except when it causes epiglottitis, which generally affects both the laryngeal and the pharyngeal surfaces. The pharyngeal mucosa may be reddened, rarely with soft yellow exudate. More commonly, it appears normal or shows' only slight diffuse redness, even while severe pain makes swallowing difficult or impossible. These infections typically cause high fever and generalized malaise.
Treatment for Haemophilus Influenzae Infection
H. influenzae injections usually respond to a 2-week course of ampicillin, but 30% of strains are resistant. Ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, or chloramphenicol is used concurrently until sensitivities are identified. Rifampin should be given before discharge to assure treatment success.
Special Considerations and Prevention Tips for Haemophilus Influenzae Infection
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